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Sinusitis

Sinusitis is a fairly common disease. Symptoms with which sinusitis proceeds, exhaust the patient, which significantly reduces the quality of his life. Most often acute sinusitis is caused by a viral infection. Its peculiarity is the rapid restoration of the sinuses of the nose without treatment. The cause of chronic sinusitis are bacteria and fungi. With increased sensitivity to certain environmental substances (allergies), allergic sinusitis develops.

Despite the wide spread of the disease, patients with sinusitis often get an incorrect diagnosis, which means that inadequate treatment is prescribed. If you have bursting pain in the face that intensifies with the tilting of the head or any other movements, the upper teeth ache, and the nose is blocked, or there are symptoms of a runny nose with yellowish-green discharge, then you may have sinusitis.

Gaimorov's sinuses. Anatomy

Near-nasal sinuses are a system of cavities located in the skull. They are quite small, such as cells of the trellis and sphenoid sinuses located on the back of the nose between the eyes and in the bones, behind the nasal cavity. Frontal and maxillary sinuses are large in volume. The volume of the maxillary sinuses is about 20 ml. The maxillary sinuses are located on both sides of the nose in the depth of the jawbone bones of the upper jaw. Depending on which sinuses are affected, we distinguish sinusitis, frontalitis, etmoiditis and sphenoiditis. Their common name is sinusitis.

The inner cavities of the sinuses are covered with a mucous membrane. Thanks to it the air in the cavities is moistened. Tiny hairs of the mucous (cilia) help to advance the mucus to the exit, cleaning the cavity of pollution - dust and allergens. The bony wall of the sinuses does not have a periosteum. Why a man needs the sinuses of his nose is not clear. It is believed that they are designed either to humidify the inhaled air, or to enhance the sound of the voice (cavities affect depth and tone), or the presence of cavities makes the skull box easier.

Causes of genyantritis

Viruses

Viruses penetrate into the paranasal cavity from the nasopharynx for colds. The disease is extremely contagious. From 80 to 90% of the causes of acute respiratory infections are viruses, and only 5 to 10% of the bacterial flora.

Bacteria

Genyantritis of bacterial nature develops after acute respiratory viral infection. In the genyantritis of the bacterial nature, pain and inflammation are manifested more than in the case of sinusitis of a viral nature. The longer the symptomatology of sinusitis, the more likely that the sinusitis is bacterial in nature.

Mushrooms

Genyanthritis of fungal nature often develop in people with reduced immunity. The disease always takes a long time and is difficult to treat.

Allergens

With increased sensitivity to some environmental substances (allergies), allergic sinusitis develops. They can be pollen of some plants, dust mites, animal dander, food, etc. A powerful irritant effect may be triggers - tobacco smoke and smells of some chemicals. Inflammatory effect is characterized by the widening of the blood vessels and subsequent swelling of the mucous membrane, which leads to the development of symptoms of a cold and itching. Violation of the outflow of sinus contents causes pain and a feeling of raspiraniya in the face.

What promotes the development of genyantritis

Promotes the development of sinusitis:

Clinical forms of sinusitis

Acute inflammation of the sinuses lasts about 4 weeks.

Subacute sinusitis is noted with the duration of inflammation more than 4 - 8 weeks.

Sinusitis, which lasts more than 8 weeks, is regarded as chronic.

Sinusitis can appear several times a year and proceed as acute inflammation. In this case, they speak of a periodic sinusitis.

Symptoms and signs of acute sinusitis

If the symptoms of a cold do not subside, but become more pronounced after 7 days of treatment, you can think about the development of acute sinusitis.

If the state of health does not improve within 3 to 5 days from the start of taking antibiotics, you can think of sinusitis.

Most often, sinusitis is caused by a viral infection. A feature of viral sinusitis is the rapid restoration of the sinuses of the nose without treatment.

In the genyantritis of the bacterial nature, pain and inflammation are manifested more than in the case of sinusitis of a viral nature. The longer the symptomatology of sinusitis, the more likely that the sinusitis is bacterial in nature.

Genyantritis of bacterial nature is found in 5-10% of cases of all sinusitis. Such a sinusitis often acquires a chronic course. Its main sign is the gradual deterioration of health and the purulent nature of discharge from the nose.

The sinusitis of a fungal nature proceeds persistently and durably, poorly give in to treatment.

Chronic sinusitis

Chronic sinusitis (often rhinosinusitis) is a continuation of the course of acute sinusitis, which was not resolved within 8 to 12 weeks. Its frequent cause is bacteria and fungi. The development of chronic maxillary sinusitis is promoted by frequent acute respiratory diseases, allergies, dental diseases and conditions, in which there is a narrowing of the anus of the maxillary sinuses: the presence of additional sinuses, curvature of the nasal septum, hypertrophy of shells and polyps in the nose.

Chronic maxillary sinusitis is hard to treat and always takes place against the background of a decrease in the overall reactivity of the body, often associated with hypovitaminosis. If the treatment of chronic sinusitis is unsuccessful, there may be a question about surgical treatment.

Symptoms and signs of chronic sinusitis

Chronic sinusitis occurs with periodic exacerbations, which often appear after a previous acute respiratory disease.

During an exacerbation the headache increases, there is a weakness, a fever, nasal breathing becomes more difficult. Pain often appears in the forehead area. Sometimes there is a feeling of pressure behind the eye on the side of the lesion. If carious teeth become the cause of sinusitis, the pain is localized in the area of ??the cheek and upper teeth. When the branches of the trigeminal nerve are involved in the pathological process, the pain becomes acute, irradiates into the eye and palate, and does not lend itself to cupping when taking analgesics. The intensity of pain after liberation of the maxillary sinuses weakens. After emptying the sinuses, pus accumulates again for several hours.

A few days after the onset of exacerbation, the mucous discharge from the nose is replaced by a purulent discharge, which is the cause of the appearance of an unpleasant odor from the mouth. The purulent discharge into the pharynx causes coughing.

Allergic sinusitis

With increased sensitivity to certain environmental substances (allergies), allergic sinusitis develops. They can be pollen of some plants, dust mites, animal dander, food, etc. A powerful irritant effect may be triggers - tobacco smoke and smells of some chemicals.

Inflammatory effect is characterized by the widening of the blood vessels and the subsequent swelling of the mucous membrane, which leads to the development of the symptoms of a runny nose and itching, debilitating the patient. Violation of the outflow of sinus contents causes pain and a feeling of raspiraniya in the face.

There are indirect signs of sinusitis, indicating its allergic nature:

When viewed not local, but diffuse edema of nasal concha,

The lower nasal shell has a pale coloration,

The discharge from the nasal passages is of a light color and is of a foamy nature.